Cologne is well known for its rich cultural history and is home to many Romanesque churches from the Middle Ages. The Romanesque period in European art history lies between the Pre-Romanesque and the start of the Gothic period. The name “Romanesque” refers to the Roman architectural style, which used similar rounded arches, pillars and columns.
Cologne has twelve large Romanesque churches, which are set in a semi-circle around the city centre. These structures are without parallel anywhere else in the world and were built between 1150 and 1250. Examples of these monuments of cultural history include Groß St. Martin (Great St. Martin's Church) in the Old Town, St. Andreas in Cologne’s banking district and St. Kunibert in the northern part of the city.